Effective learning: Twenty rules of formulating knowledge

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  • Do not learn if you do not understand
  • Before you proceed with memorizing individual facts and rules, you need to build an overall picture of the learned knowledge.
  • Stick to the minimum information principle
    • We want answer to be as short as imaginably possible!
  • Use imagery
  • Use mnemonic techniques
  • Graphic deletion is as good as cloze deletion
  • Avoid sets and enumerations
    • A classic example of an item that is difficult to learn is an item that asks for the list of the members of a set.
    • You should always try to make sure your brain works in the exactly same way at each repetition.
    • Use enumerations instead of sets
    • Use overlapping close deletions instead of enumerations
      • Enumerations require hacks that will fail you at times
  • The wording of your items must be optimized to make sure that in minimum time the right bulb in your brain lights up.
  • Personalize and provide examples