Book Cover
Overcoming Dyslexia


★ ★ ★

TL;DR: Walks comprehensively through all aspects of dyslexia, from the neuroscience to diagnosis to treatment strategies and more. Feel quite well-informed after reading.

Notes

  • “what is the root ““dys”” in dyslexia?” impaired
  • “what is the root ““lexia”” in dyslexia?” word
  • what are norm-referenced evaluations and under which circumstances are they used? norm-referenced evaluations compare everyone to each other based on averages of the same assessment (percentile). they are used to measure relative performance within a group. 
  • what are criterion-referenced evaluations and under what circumstances are they used? criterion-referenced evaluations compare everyone to the same pre-established criteria, e.g. expressed as a % of answers correct. they are used to measure whole-group performance.
  • “what is meant by the ““unexpectedness”” of dyslexia?” “<div>People who are quite strong in other cognitive areas (math, reasoning, etc.) are able to mask their reading difficulties using context clues, thus it is surprising or ““unexpected”” to learn that they are dyslexic. alternatives: isolated
    </div>”
  • What are the upper and lower bound estimates for the % of children affected by dyslexia? 5% (UMich) to 20% (Overcoming Dyslexia)
  • what is the central concept underlying developmental dyslexia? unexpectedness/isolation/localization; a child who is slow in all cognitive skills would not be eligible for consideration as dyslexic
  • which opthalmologist is credited with pioneering research into dyslexia, or congenital word-blindness? Dr. James Hinshelwood
  • describe the reasoning behind the Connecticut Longitudinal study. in order to differentiate between children who were experiencing reading difficulties and those who were learning to read with ease, it was necessary to establish what rate of reading development, what behaviors, and what characteristics are normal for children.
  • do good and poor readers form a continuum, or are they two distinct groups? they are a continuum, just like many other occurrences in nature that form a gradiation even though regulation forces a cut-off (obesity, diabetes, etc.)
  • what is the significance of an undiagnosed case of dyslexia? students fall behind and must make up more and more ground. Many become defeated, lose interest in reading, and develop a life-long loss of self-worth.
  • what did the Connecticut Longitudinal Study uncover about the temporality of dyslexia? “dyslexia is not a temporary lag in reading development, but an ongoing one. A child with dyslexia will not ““catch up”” on their own.”
  • describe the phonologic module at a high level. The phonologic module is the language factory, the functional part of the brain where the sounds of language are put together to form words and where words are broken down into teir elemental sounds.
  • which module in the brain does dyslexia reflect a weakness in? the phonologic module
  • what are the three phonemes in the word cat? k, aaaa, t
  • visualize the process of retrieving and ordering phonemes to make a word “<img src=”“paste-86abb15dfcef9a0af785b6387ef6143fc6719320.jpg””>”
  • what is a phoneme? the fundamental element of the language system, building blocks of words
  • what are the steps taken for a child to learn language? 1. words are made up of pieces
    2. these pieces represent sound
    3. words on paper map to spoken words
    4. the printed word and spoken word share structure 
  • what is the alphabetic principle? the understanding that both spoken and written words can be pulled apart based on the same phonemes.
  • what is the significance of the alphabetic principle? it means a child is ready to read.
  • how many words can be held in memory sequentially at a time? 5 to 7
  • describe coarticulation the ability to overlap several phonemes into one bubble of sound while maintaining the integrity of each
  • give an example of coarticulation “"”tenth”” -> ““nth”” is coarticulate ““n”” and ““th”””
  • what are the two major components of the reading process? comprehension (meaning) and decoding (word identification)
  • does dyslexia affect both comprehension and decoding? no, they are backed by completely different parts of the language system so dyslexia only affects decoding.
  • what is the best predictor of ease of learning to read? phonemic awareness
  • describe at least two tasks which are especially difficult for people with dyslexia deleting specific phonemes from words, rote memorization, rapid word retrieval
  • what is a potential explanation for the disproportionately high representation of dyslexics at very high levels of creativity? a dyslexia cannot simply memorize things, so to truly understand concepts they must achieve a deep understanding
  • who was the first (highly controversial) phrenologist? Franz Joseph Gall
  • what is phrenology? the idea that human behavior and cognitive ability is localized within the brain and each trait is housed in a specific area. The larger that area, the stronger that attribute in the person.
  • give an example of a phrenological interpretation protruding eyes -> large frontal lobe -> smart
  • what is the autoregulation of cerebral blood flow? when an area of the brain is active, it needs more energy and thus more blood flows to that area
  • how does fMRI work? the autoregulation of cerebral blood flow combined with the fact that increased blood flow produces alterations in the magnetism of hemoglobin in blood (more oxygen attached -> stronger signal), which is picked up by the fMRI machine
  • areas that should be tested for early recognition of reading problems:<div><span class=cloze>[…]</span></div><div>letters (names and sounds)</div><div>vocabulary</div><div>print conventions</div><div>listening comprehension</div><div>reading (real words, nonsense words, and comprehension)</div> areas that should be tested for early recognition of reading problems:<div><span class=cloze>phonology (awareness, memory, access)</span></div><div>letters (names and sounds)</div><div>vocabulary</div><div>print conventions</div><div>listening comprehension</div><div>reading (real words, nonsense words, and comprehension)</div>
  • areas that should be tested for early recognition of reading problems:<div>phonology (awareness, memory, access)</div><div><span class=cloze>[…]</span></div><div>vocabulary</div><div>print conventions</div><div>listening comprehension</div><div>reading (real words, nonsense words, and comprehension)</div> areas that should be tested for early recognition of reading problems:<div>phonology (awareness, memory, access)</div><div><span class=cloze>letters (names and sounds)</span></div><div>vocabulary</div><div>print conventions</div><div>listening comprehension</div><div>reading (real words, nonsense words, and comprehension)</div>
  • areas that should be tested for early recognition of reading problems:<div>phonology (awareness, memory, access)</div><div>letters (names and sounds)</div><div><span class=cloze>[…]</span></div><div>print conventions</div><div>listening comprehension</div><div>reading (real words, nonsense words, and comprehension)</div> areas that should be tested for early recognition of reading problems:<div>phonology (awareness, memory, access)</div><div>letters (names and sounds)</div><div><span class=cloze>vocabulary</span></div><div>print conventions</div><div>listening comprehension</div><div>reading (real words, nonsense words, and comprehension)</div>
  • areas that should be tested for early recognition of reading problems:<div>phonology (awareness, memory, access)</div><div>letters (names and sounds)</div><div>vocabulary</div><div><span class=cloze>[…]</span></div><div>listening comprehension</div><div>reading (real words, nonsense words, and comprehension)</div> areas that should be tested for early recognition of reading problems:<div>phonology (awareness, memory, access)</div><div>letters (names and sounds)</div><div>vocabulary</div><div><span class=cloze>print conventions</span></div><div>listening comprehension</div><div>reading (real words, nonsense words, and comprehension)</div>
  • areas that should be tested for early recognition of reading problems:<div>phonology (awareness, memory, access)</div><div>letters (names and sounds)</div><div>vocabulary</div><div>print conventions</div><div><span class=cloze>[…]</span></div><div>reading (real words, nonsense words, and comprehension)</div> areas that should be tested for early recognition of reading problems:<div>phonology (awareness, memory, access)</div><div>letters (names and sounds)</div><div>vocabulary</div><div>print conventions</div><div><span class=cloze>listening comprehension</span></div><div>reading (real words, nonsense words, and comprehension)</div>
  • areas that should be tested for early recognition of reading problems:<div>phonology (awareness, memory, access)</div><div>letters (names and sounds)</div><div>vocabulary</div><div>print conventions</div><div>listening comprehension</div><div><span class=cloze>[…]</span></div> areas that should be tested for early recognition of reading problems:<div>phonology (awareness, memory, access)</div><div>letters (names and sounds)</div><div>vocabulary</div><div>print conventions</div><div>listening comprehension</div><div><span class=cloze>reading (real words, nonsense words, and comprehension)</span></div>
  • what is the difference between how dyslexic and non-dyslexic college-age readers read? “non-dyslexic readers use the ““automatic”” neural pathway to read words. dyslexic readers must use the slower neural system which permits accurate but not fluent reading, which takes more time.”
  • what are the most likely tests to reveal phonologic deficits in a bright young adult? reading speed tests
  • what is the difference between the phonologic weakness in children vs. adults? in children it affects reading accuracy, in adults it affects reading time
  • what does the reliance on secondary reading pathways result in for adult dyslexics? accurate but slow reading
  • is the diagnosis of dyslexia precise or imprecise? it is as precise and scientifically informed as almost any diagnosis in medicine.
  • what are the two guiding principles for treatment of dyslexia in young children? develop a life span perspective. remediate the phonologic weakness and access the higher-level thinking and reasoning strengths.
  • “what are the first two steps breaking the reading code for children, under the category ““sound advice””?” develop an awareness of rhyme. then work on components of words.
  • what is segmenting when working with words? pulling a word apart into its sounds
  • what is blending when working with words? pushing sounds together to form a word
  • what are the two key processes involved in learning to spell and read words? segmenting and blending
  • what is part one of the reading code? sound advice; learning sounds and words
  • what is part two of the reading code? put it in writing; writing letters and things
  • what is phonics? learning about and using different sound and letter combinations to decode words
  • what are some examples of sight words? a, is, are, one, two, said, again, been, could
  • what are sight words? words that pop up frequently that don’t seem to follow the rules; they must be committed to memory and recognized on sight
  • what is the most important development of a dyslexic child as he/she leaves kindergarten? how he/she feels about himself
  • key questions to ask when evaluating reading programs for kindergarten-age students:<div>* is there <span class=cloze>[…]</span> that the program is effective? was the program or its methods reviewed by the National Reading Panel?</div><div>* in teaching beginning reading, are phonemic awareness and phonics taught systematically and explicitly?</div><div>* how are children taught to approach an unfamiliar word? they should be empowered to try to analyze and sound out first rather than guess from context.</div> key questions to ask when evaluating reading programs for kindergarten-age students:<div>* is there <span class=cloze>scientific evidence</span> that the program is effective? was the program or its methods reviewed by the National Reading Panel?</div><div>* in teaching beginning reading, are phonemic awareness and phonics taught systematically and explicitly?</div><div>* how are children taught to approach an unfamiliar word? they should be empowered to try to analyze and sound out first rather than guess from context.</div>
  • key questions to ask when evaluating reading programs for kindergarten-age students:<div>* is there scientific evidence that the program is effective? was the program or its methods reviewed by the <span class=cloze>[…]</span>?</div><div>* in teaching beginning reading, are phonemic awareness and phonics taught systematically and explicitly?</div><div>* how are children taught to approach an unfamiliar word? they should be empowered to try to analyze and sound out first rather than guess from context.</div> key questions to ask when evaluating reading programs for kindergarten-age students:<div>* is there scientific evidence that the program is effective? was the program or its methods reviewed by the <span class=cloze>National Reading Panel</span>?</div><div>* in teaching beginning reading, are phonemic awareness and phonics taught systematically and explicitly?</div><div>* how are children taught to approach an unfamiliar word? they should be empowered to try to analyze and sound out first rather than guess from context.</div>
  • key questions to ask when evaluating reading programs for kindergarten-age students:<div>* is there scientific evidence that the program is effective? was the program or its methods reviewed by the National Reading Panel?</div><div>* in teaching beginning reading, are <span class=cloze>[…]</span> taught systematically and explicitly?</div><div>* how are children taught to approach an unfamiliar word? they should be empowered to try to analyze and sound out first rather than guess from context.</div> key questions to ask when evaluating reading programs for kindergarten-age students:<div>* is there scientific evidence that the program is effective? was the program or its methods reviewed by the National Reading Panel?</div><div>* in teaching beginning reading, are <span class=cloze>phonemic awareness and phonics</span> taught systematically and explicitly?</div><div>* how are children taught to approach an unfamiliar word? they should be empowered to try to analyze and sound out first rather than guess from context.</div>
  • key questions to ask when evaluating reading programs for kindergarten-age students:<div>* is there scientific evidence that the program is effective? was the program or its methods reviewed by the National Reading Panel?</div><div>* in teaching beginning reading, are phonemic awareness and phonics taught systematically and explicitly?</div><div>* <span class=cloze>[…]</span>? they should be empowered to try to analyze and sound out first rather than guess from context.</div> key questions to ask when evaluating reading programs for kindergarten-age students:<div>* is there scientific evidence that the program is effective? was the program or its methods reviewed by the National Reading Panel?</div><div>* in teaching beginning reading, are phonemic awareness and phonics taught systematically and explicitly?</div><div>* <span class=cloze>how are children taught to approach an unfamiliar word</span>? they should be empowered to try to analyze and sound out first rather than guess from context.</div>
  • <span class=cloze>[…]</span> is the key to becoming a skilled reader. <span class=cloze>Practice</span> is the key to becoming a skilled reader.
  • how many words should a child be able to read correctly to read a book easily? 19 out of 20
  • What step follows reading accuracy in the progression of learning to read? fluency
  • what are the three key features of reading programs teaching fluency? a focus on oral reading<div>opportunities for practice, allowing reading and rereading</div><div>ongoing feedback as the child reads (made possible by oral reading)</div>
  • there is a very strong <span class=cloze>[…]</span> correlation between a child’s vocabulary size and their reading skill there is a very strong <span class=cloze>positive</span> correlation between a child’s vocabulary size and their reading skill
  • what is the best amount and setting of intense instruction for a struggling reader? a group of four students, for about an hour preferably 5 days a week
  • when should a child be removed from an effective reading program? when they are reading words and passages fluently at their grade level
  • why are computers good for people with dyslexia? it is easier to type than to handwrite. spellcheckers are great. dyslexic brains are better at recognizing patterns on a keyboard than on paper.
  • what is the number one goal for parents and teachers of students with reading problems? preserving self esteem
  • what are some accomodations that should be allowed for dyslexic students? extra time for tests. an isolated, quiet room for tests. non-multiple-choice tests. recorded tests and materials. waiver of the foreign language requirement.
  • who are some significant, important, successful people with dyslexia? Charles Schwab<div>Richard Branson</div><div>Mohammed Ali</div><div>Henry Ford</div><div>Thomas Edison</div><div>David Boies (big attorney)</div><div>Agatha Christie</div>