★ ★ ★ ★ ★

TL;DR: One of the best software books I’ve ever read. Puts into words a lot of the best advice I’ve received about building software.

## Notes

Note: Part IV, Strategic Design, was much less useful to me than the rest of the book.

### Foreword (Martin Fowler)

• The greatest value of a domain model is that it provides a ubiquitous language that ties domain experts and technologists together.

### Preface

• Premise:
• For most software projects, the primary focus should be on the domain and domain logic
• Complex domain designs should be based on a model
• Prereqs:
• Development is iterative
• Developers and domain experts have a close relationship

## Part I: Putting the Domain Model to Work

• A model:
• Is a selective simplification
• Consciously structured form of knowledge
• Focuses information on a problem

### Ch 1: Crunching Knowledge

• Conversations
• It is the creativity of brainstorming and massive experimentation, leveraged through a model-based language and disciplined by the feedback loop through implementation, that makes it possible to find a knowledge-rich model and distill it. This kind of knowledge crunching turns the knowledge of the team into valuable models. (12)
• Techincal success requires serious learning about the specific domain
• Be specific: Domain experts are usually not aware of how copmlex their mental processes are as, in the course of their work, they navigate all these rules, reconcile contradictions, and fill in gaps with common sense. Software can’t do this. (16)

### Ch 2: Communication and the Use of Language

• Issue: across this linguistic divide, the domain experts vaguely describe what they want. Developers, struggling to understand a domain new to them, vaguely understand. (24)
• A project faces serious problems when its language is fractured. Domain experts use their jargon while technical team members have their own language tuned for dicussing the domain in terms of their design. (24)
• Solution: ubiquitous language
• Use the model as the backbone of a language. Commit the team to exercising that language relentlessly in all communication within the team and in the code. Use the same language in diagrams, writing, and especially speech. (26)
• Speech is the lossiest form of communication. Thus, if you have a model you can explain in conversation, it’s probably good.
• “If we give the routing service an origin, destination, and arrival time, it can look up the stops the cargo will have to make, and, well…stick them in the database” –> vague, technical
• “The origin, destination, and so on…it all feeds into the routing service, and we get back an itinerary that has everything we need in it.” –> more complete, but verbose
• A routing service finds an itinerary that satistfies a route specification –> bingo
• If sophisticated domain experts don’t understand the model, there is something wrong with the model (32)
• It takes fastidiousness to write code that doesn’t just do the right thing but also says the right thing. (40)
• Written design docs:
• Should complement code and speech, not replace them
• Should work for a living and stay current
• If can’t stay current, get rid of it

### Ch 3: Binding Model and Implementation

• Domain-driven design calls for a model that doesn’t just aid early analysis but is the very foundation of the deisgn […] tightly relating the code to an underlying model gives the code meaning and makes the model relevant. (46)
• If the design, or some central part of it, does not map to the domain model, that model is of little value, and the correctness of the softwarte is suspect. (48)
• How to bind model and implementation: Design a portion of the software system to reflect the domain model in a very literal way, so that the mapping is obvious. Revisit the model and modify it to be implemented more naturally in software, even as you seek to make it reflect deeper insight into the domain. Demand a single model that serves both purposes well, in addition to supporting a robust ubiquitous language. (49)
• Silent side affects are generally unacceptable.

## Part II: The Building Blocks of a Model-Driven Design

### Ch 4: Isolating the Domain

• Concentrate all the code related to the domain model in one layer and isolate it from the user interface, application, and infrastructure code. The domain objects, free of the responsibility of displaying themselves, storing themselves, managing application tasks, and so forth, can be focused on expressing the domain model. This allows a model to evolve to be rich enough and clear enough to capture essential business knowledge and put it to work. (70)
• Nice. The service layer

### Ch 5: A Model Expressed in Software

• Three patterns of model eelements express model:
• Entity represents something with continuity and identity, tracked through different states
• Defined primarily by its identity
• YES: Person, city, car, lottery ticket
• NO: color, etc.
• The model must define what it means to be the same thing. (92)
• The most basic responsibility of entities is to establish continuity so that behavior can be clear and predictable. They do this best if they are kept spare. Rather than focusing on the attributes or even the behavior, strip the entity object’s definition down to the most intrinsic characteristics, particularly those that identify it or are commonly used to find or match it. Add only behavior that is essential to the concept and attributes that are required by that behavior. Beyond that, look to remove behavior and attributes into other objects associated with the core enty. Some of these will be entities. Some will be value objects. (93)
• Value object is basically anything that does not fit the above
• Tracking the identity of entities is essential, but attaching identity to other objects can hurt system performance, add analytical work, and muddle the model by making all objects look the same. (97)
• An object that represents a descriptive aspect of the domain with no conceptual identity is called a value object. Value objects are instantiated to represent elements of the design that we only care about for what they are, not who or which they are (97)
• Color or Route
• Make it immutable
• Service is something that is done for a client on request
• When a significant process or transformation in the domain is not a natural responsibility of an entity or value object, add an operation to the model as a standalone interface declared as a service. Define the interface in terms of the language of the model and make sure the operation name is part of the ubiquitous language. Make the service stateless. (105)
• Three good characteristics
• Operation relates to concept that doesn’t fit in entity or value object
• Interface defined in terms of other elements in domain model
• Operation is stateless
• Best at “medium” granularity. Varies project o project
• Implementing every real-life association complicates implementation and maintenance. Some strategies:
• Impose a traversal direction
• Add a qualifier to reduce multiplicity (scope down associations)
• Eliminate nonessential associations
• Modules are also a part of the model. Package code together to organize objects.
• Low coupling: force users to think about as few things as possible at a time
• High cohesion: force users to think about related topics at the same time
• Don’t be too heavy-handed with module and package distinctions
• The most effective tool for holding the parts together is a robust ubiquitous language that underlies the whole heterogeneous model. (121)

### Ch 6: The Life Cycle of a Domain Object

• Managing object life cycle: must maintain integrity and manage complexity
• Aggregates
• a cluster of associated objects that we treat as a unit for the purpose of data changes. Each aggregate has a root and a boundary. The boundary defines what is inside the aggregate. The root is a single, specific entity contained in the aggregate. The root is the only member of the aggregate that outside objects are allowed to hold references to, although objects within the boundary may hold references to each other. (126)
• Factories
• Cars aren’t assembled and driven at the same time. Similarly, complex objects should be assembled separate from where they’re used
• A program whose responsibility is the creation of other objects
• Each creation method is atomic and enforces invariants of the entity or aggregate being created
• If not super complex, can still use a constructor, but still a very useful pattern to have available
• Repositories
• Reconstitution: Creation of an instance from stored data
• Why? Domain logic moves into queries and client code, and the entities and value objects become mere data containers. The sheer technical complexity of applying most database access infrastructure quickly swamps the client code, which leads developers to dumb down the domain layer, which makes the model irrelevant. (149)
• A repository represents all objects of a certain type as a conceptual set. It acts like a collection, except with more elaborate querying capability. Objects of the appropriate type are added and removed, and the machinery behind the repository inserts them or deletes them from the database. (151)
• Present simple interface to clients
• Decouple application and domain design from persistence
• Communicate design decisions about object access
• Allow easy mocking
• Avoid find or create. Distinction between new and existing object is important. Distinguishing between entities and value objects seems to get you most of the value.

## Part III: Refactoring Toward Deeper Insight

• Developing useful models:
• Sophisticated domain models are achievable and worth the time
• Domain models are developed through an iterative process of refactoring
• Domain models may call for sophisticated design skills
• Refactoring: the redesign of software in ways that do not change its functionality
• Instead of big up-front design, make a continuous series of small changes leaving existing functionality unchanged while making design more flexible and easier to understand
• The goal is that not only can a developer understand what the code dos; he or she can also understand why it does what it does and can relate that to the ongoing communication with the domain experts. (188)

### Ch 9: Making Implicit Concepts Explicit

• Steps:
• Recognize a concept that has been hinted at in discussion or implicitly in the design
• Represent it explicitly in the model with one or more objects or relationships
• Before and after introducing Itinerary object:

### Ch 10: Supple Design

• To have a project accelerate as development proceeds–rather than get weighed down by its own legacy–demands a design that is a pleasure to work with, inviting to change. A supple design. (244)

• Intention-revealing interfaces:
• In domain-driven design, we want to think about meaningful domain logic. Code that produces the effect of a rule without explicitly stating the rule forces us to think of step-by-step software procedures. (245)
• If the interface doesn’t tell the client developer what he needs to know in order to use the object effectively, he will have to dig into the internals to understand the details anyway. A reader of the client code will have to do the same. Then most of the value of the encapsulation is lost. (246)
• Therefore: Name classes and operations to describe their effect and purpose, without reference to to the means by which they do what they promise. This relieves the client developer of the need to understand the internals. These names should conform to the ubiquitous language so that team members can quickly infer their meaning. (247)
• Side-effect-free functions:
• Queries obtain information from the system, e.g. retrieving variable data or performing a calculation
• These should cause no side effects
• Commands affect some change to the system
• Place as much of the logic of the program as possible into functions, operations that return results with no observable side effects. Strictly segregate commands into very sipmle operations that do not return domain information. (250)
• Example: extracting Pigment Color class from Paint that handles all of the mixing logic
• The necessity of tracing concrete execution defeats abstraction. (255)
• Contours:
• Find the conceptually meaningful unit of functionality, and the resulting design will be both flexible and understandable. For example, if an “addition” of two objects has a coherent meaning in the domain, then implement methods at that level. Don’t break the add() method into two steps. (261)
• Make as many conceptually independent classes as possible
• Closure of operations:
• Where it fits, define an operation who return type is the same as the type of its argument(s). […] Such an operation is closed under the set of instances of that type. A closed operation provides a high-level interface without introducing any dependency on other concepts. (268)
• Goal (e.g. with Share Pie refactor): producing code that begins to read like a conceptual definition of the business transaction, rather than a calculation. (290)

### Ch 11: Applying Analysis Patterns

• Analysis patterns are groups of concepts that represent a common construction in business modeling.
• Double-entry accounting pattern:
• Reapplying organized knowledge. Kind of out of scope without reading Fowler’s book?
• Analysis patterns focus on the most critical and difficult decisions and illuminate alternatives and choices. They anticipate downstream consequences that are expensive if you have to discover them for yourself. (306)

### Ch 12: Relating Design Patterns to the Model

• Two levels:
• Technical design patterns in code
• Conceptual patterns in model
• Strategy/Policy pattern
• Factor the varying parts of a process into a separate “strategy” object in the model. Factor apart a rule and the behavior it governs. Implement the rule or substitutable process following the Strategy design pattern. Multiple versions of the strategy object represent different ways the process can be done. (311)
• Ex: route-finding can be “default strategy” or “leg magnitude policy” (fastest) or “cost strategy” (cheapest)

### Ch 13: Refactoring Toward Deeper Insight

• Three main points:
• Live in the domain
• Keep looking at things a different way
• Maintain an unbroken dialog with domain experts

## Part IV: Strategic Design

### Ch 14: Maintaining Model Integrity

• The most fundamental requirement of a model is that it be internally consistent; that its terms always have the same meaning, and that it contain no contradictory rules. The internal consistency of a model, such that each term is unambiguous and no rules contradict, is called unification. (332)
• Through a combination of proactive decisions about what should be unified and pragmatic recognition of what is not unified, we can create a clear, shared picture of the situation. (333)
• Bounded Contexts is the specific place in the domain where a model applies
• Look out for duplicate concepts (same thing expressed in two different ways) and false cognates (sound the same but are not the same)
• Best processes for continuous integration:
• Reproducible merge/build technique
• Automated testing
• Rules setting an upper limit on the lifetime of unmerged changes
• Constant exercise of ubiquitous language in discussion of the model and application
• A context map is in the overlap between project management and software design. The natural course of events is for the boundaries to follow the contours of team organization. People who work closely will naturally share a model context. (344)

• Shared kernel is where multiple teams share ownership over the core domain
• Anticorruption layer: Create an isolating layer to provide clients with functionality in terms of their own domain model. The layer talks to the other system through its existing interface, requiring little or no modification to the other system. Internally, the layer translates in both directions as necessary between the two models. (365)
• A Facade is an alternative interface for a subsystem that simplifies access for the client and makes the subsystem easier to use. […] The facade belongs in the bounded context of the other system. It just presents a friendlier face specialized for your needs. (366)
• An Adapter is a wrapper that allows a client to use a different protocol than that understood by the implementer of the behavior. When a client sends a message to an adapter, it is converted to a semantically equivalent message and sent on to the “adaptee”. (366)
• Balancing boundaries
• Larger bounded contexts:
• Flow between user tasks is smoother
• Easier to understand one model than two plus mappings
• Shared language fosters clear team communication
• Smaller bounded contexts
• Less coordination required between teams
• Don’t need to stretch as far for abstractions
• Can cater to special needs or narrower domains
• There is a range of strategies for unifying or integrating models. In general terms, you will trade off the benefits of seamless integration of functionality against the additional effort of coordination and communication. You trade more independent action against smoother communication. More ambitious unification requries control over the design of the subsystems involved. (387)

### Ch 15: Distillation

• Distillation is the process of separating the components of a mixture to extract the essence in a form that makes it more valuable and useful. A model is a distillation of knowledge. (397)
• The effort is motivated by the desire to extract that one particularly valuable part, the part that distinguishes out software and makes it worth building: the Core Domain. (397)

• Boil the model down. Find the core domain and provide a means of easily distinguishing it from the mass of supporting model and code. Bring the most valuable and specialized concepts into sharp relief. Make the core small. Apply top talent to the core domain, and recruit accordingly. Spend the effort in the core to find a deep model and develop a supple design–sufficient to fulfill the vision of the system. Justify investment in any other part by how it supports the distilled core. (401)
• When the field already has a highly formalized and rigorous model, use it. Acccounting and physics are two examples that come to mind. (408)
• Domain vision statement
• Write a short description (about one page) of the Core Domain and the value it will bring, the “value proposition”. Ignore those aspects that do not distinguish this domain model from others. Show how the domain model serves and balances diverse interests. Keep it narrow. Write this statement early and revise it as you gain new insight. (415)
• Corollary: the Distillation document
• Write a very brief document (three to seven sparse pages) that describes the core domain and the primary interactions among core elements. (417)

### Ch 16: Large-Scale Structure

• A large-scale structure is a language that lets you discuss and understand the system in broad strokes. A set of high-level concepts or rules, or both, establishes a pattern of design for an entire system. This organizing principle can guide design as well as aid understanding. It helps coordinate independent work because there is a shared concept of the big picture: how the roles of various parts shape the whole. (442)
• Devise a pattern of rules or roles and relationships that will span the entire system and that allows some understanding of each part’s place in the whole–even without detailed knowledge of the part’s responsibility. (442)

• Evolving order (my favorite)
• An up-front imposition of a large-scale structure is likely to be costly. As development proceeds, you will almost certainly find a more suitable structure, and you may even find that the prescribed structure is prohibiting you from taking a design route that would greatly clarify or simplify the application. (444)
• Let this conceptual large-scale structure evolve with the application, possibly changing to a completely different type of structure along the way. Don’t overconstrain the detailed design and model decisions that must be made with detailed knowledge. (444)
• Responsibility layers
• Layers are partitions of a system in which the members of each partition are aware of and are able to use the services of the layer “below”, but unaware of and independent of the layers “above”. (450)

• Espousing minimalism in refactoring towards a fitting structure
• One key to keeping the cost down is to keep the structure simple and lightweight. Don’t attempt to be comprehensive. Just address the most serious concerns and leave the rest to be handled on a case-by-case basis. Early on, it can be helpful to choose a loose structure, such as a system metaphor or a couple of responsibility layers. (481)

### Ch 17: Bringing the Strategy Together

• Assessment first of a project
• Draw a context map. Is it consistent?
• Attend to use of language. Is it using a ubiquitious language?
• Understand what is important. Is the core domain identified? Is there a domain vision statement? Can you write one?
• Does the technology work for or against a model-driven design?
• Do the developers have the necessary technical skills?
• Are the developers knowledgeable about the domain?
• Six essentials for strategis design decision making
• Decisions must reach the entire team
• The decision process must absorb feedback
• The plan must allow for evolution
• Architecture teams must not siphon off all the best and the brightest
• Strategic design requires minimalism and humility
• Objects are specialists; Developers are generalists
• The success of a design is not necessarily marked by its stasis. Take a system people depend on, make it opaque, and it will live forever as untouchable legacy. A deep model allows clear vision that can yield new insight, while a supple design facilitates ongoing change. The model they came up with was deeper, better aligned with the real concerns of the users. Their design solved real problems. It is the nature of software to change, and this program has continued to evolve in the hands of the team that owns it. (502)